Jung-Ting Hu – Shuǐhuò
with Charles Negre
“Shuǐhuò” is a Mandarin term that refers to the trade of a commodity through distribution channels that are not authorised by the original manufacturer or trademark proprietor. 水 (“Shuǐ”) in Mandarin means “water”, while 貨 (“huò”) means “goods”. However, since the commodity is not authorised, the quality is usually poor. Therefore, when we see poor quality products, we use the word “Shuǐ” to describe them.