“Shuǐhuò” is a Mandarin term that refers to the trade of a commodity through distribution channels that are not authorised by the original manufacturer or trademark proprietor. 水 (“Shuǐ”) in Mandarin means “water”, while 貨 (“huò”) means “goods”. However, since the commodity is not authorised, the quality is usually poor. Therefore, when we see poor quality products, we use the word “Shuǐ” to describe them.
Diploma project (2020) by Jung-Ting Hu